USGS - science for a changing world

National Water Quality Laboratory

Friday December 15, 2017

Methods Research and Development Program

Staff and Interests


Principle Investigators

Sarah Stetson Project Chief, Ph.D., Applied Chemistry, 303-236-3250
Environmental analytical chemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nutrient analysis, brine nutrient analysis, ion chromatography.

William T. Foreman, Project Chief, Ph.D., Analytical Chemistry, 303-236-3942
Environmental, analytical, atmospheric chemistry of organic contaminants, analysis of pesticides and PCBs, gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, chiral chromatography, sample isolation and preparation techniques  (selected publications)

Edward T. Furlong, Project Chief, Ph.D., Chemical Oceanography, 303-236-3941
Field sampling, trace organic contaminants in sediments, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry (selected publications)

James L. Gray, Project Chief, Ph.D., Civil and Environmental Engineering, 303-236-3776
Environmental analytical chemistry, endocrine disruption, gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, contaminant fate and transport

Jeff W. McCoy, Program Chief, PhD., Analytical Chemistry, 303-236-3940

Mark W. Sandstrom, Project Chief, Ph.D., Geochemistry, 303-236-3943
Analysis and fate of pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds, gas and liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, sample collection and processing methods, automated and time-integrated sample collection  (selected publications)

Support Chemists

Cyrissa Anderson, Chemist - 303-236-3253
Chris Kanagy, Chemist - 303-236-3262
Leslie Kanagy, Chemist - 303-236-3224
Eric Schwab, Chemist - 303-236-3178

Selected Publications


Burkhardt, Mark R.

Burkhardt, M.R., ReVello, R.C., Smith, S.G. and Zaugg, S.D., 2005, Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment:  Analytica Chemica Acta, V. 534, p. 89-100.

Burkhardt, M.R., Soliven, P.P., Werner, S.L., and Vaught, D.G., 1999, Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography: Journal of AOAC International, v. 82, no. 1, p.161-166.

Cahill, J.D., Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., Kolpin, D., and L.G Anderson, Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface-and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography A, 2004, 1041, 171-180.

Burkhardt, M.R., Zaugg, S.D., Burbank, T.L., Olson, M.C. and Iverson, J.L., 2005, Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for semivolatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment:  Analytica Chemica Acta, Accepted and in Press July, 2005.

Foreman, William T.

Zamora, C., Majewski, M.S., and Foreman, W.T., 2013, Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5023, 180 p. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5023/.

Foreman, W.T. , Gray, J.L., ReVello, R.C., Lindley, C.E., and Losche, S.A., 2013. An isotope dilution standard GC/MS/MS methods for steroid hormones in water: in Evaluating Veterinary Pharmaceutical Behavior in the Environment, Cobb, G.P, and Smith, P.N. (eds), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, ACS Symposium Series, v. 1126, chap. 4, p. 57–136. Available at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/ 10.1021/bk-2013-1126.ch004.

Kolpin, D.W., Blazer, V.S., Gray, J.L., Focazio, M.J., Young, J.A., Alvarez, D.A., Iwanowicz, L.R., Foreman, W.T. , Furlong, E.T., Speiran, G.K., Zaugg, S.D., Hubbard, L.E., Meyer, M.T., Sandstrom, M.W., and Barber, L.B., 2013, Chemical contaminants in water and sediment near fish nesting sites in the Potomac River basin: Determining potential exposures to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu): Science of The Total Environment, v. 443, p. 700–716.

Lee, K.E., Langer, S.K., Menheer, M.A., Foreman, W.T. , Furlong, E.T., and Smith, S.G., 2012, Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011—Collection methods, analytical methods, quality assurance, and data: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 723, 26 p. Available online only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/723/.

Foreman, W.T. , Gray, J.L., ReVello, R.C., Lindley, C.E., Losche, S.A., and Barber, L.B., 2012, Determination of steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered and unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, sec. B, chap. 9, 118 p. Available online only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/5b9/.

Phillips, P. J., Chalmers, A. T., Gray, J. L, Kolpin, D. W., Foreman, W. T. , and Wall, G. R., 2012, Combined sewer overflows: An environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 46, 5336–5343.

Van Metre, P., Majewski, M.S., Mahler, B.J., Foreman, W.T., Braun, C.L, Wilson, J.T.,Burbank, T.L., ReVello, R., 2012, PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant: Atmospheric Environment, v. 51, 108–155.

Van Metre, P., Mahler, B.J., Foreman, W., Braun, C., Wilson, J., Burbank, T., ReVello, R., Majewski, M.S., 2012, Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement: Chemosphere, v. 8, p. 1–7.

Ulrich, E.M., Morrison, C.N., Goldsmith, M.R., and Foreman, W.T., 2012, Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 217, Whitacre, D.M., ed. Springer U.S., p. 1–74.

Lee, K.E., Langer, S.K., Barber, L.B., Writer, J.H., Ferrey, M.L., Schoenfuss, H.L., Furlong, E.T., Foreman, W.T., Gray, J.L., ReVello, R.C., Martinovic, D., Woodruff, O.P., Keefe, S.H., Brown, G.K., Taylor, H.E., Ferrer, I., and Thurman, E.M., 2011, Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota—design, methods, and data, 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 575, 54 p., with appendixes. Available on-line only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/575/.

Garrison, V.H., Foreman, W.T., Genualdi, S.A., Majewski, M.S., Mohammed, Azad, and Simonich, S.M., 2011, Concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds associated with African dust air masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 571. Available on-line only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/571/.

Ulrich, E.M., Foreman, W.T., Van Metre, P.C., Wilson, J.T., and Rounds, S.A., 2009, Enantiomer fractions of chlordane components in sediment samples from U.S. Geological Survey sites in lakes and rivers: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, p. 5884–5893.

Mendez, G.O., Foreman, W.T., Morita, A., and Majewski, M.S., 2008, Water- and air-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego County, California--Phase One Results Continued, 2001-2003: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 347, 158 p. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/347/.

Majewski, M.S., Foreman, W.T., Coupe, R.H., Goolsby, D.A., and Wiebe, F.W., 2008, Pesticides in air and rainwater in the midcontinental United States, 1995—Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2007–1369, 24 p. Available electronically only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1369/.

Van Metre, P.C., Horowitz, A.J., Mahler, B.J., Foreman, W.T., Fuller, C.C., Burkhardt, M.R., Elrick, K.A., Furlong, E.T., Skrobialowski, S., Smith, J.J., Wilson, J.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2007, The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the chemistry of bottom sediments in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA: in, Farris, G.S., Smith, G.J., Crane, M. P., Demas, C.R., Robbins, L.L., and Lavoie, D.L., eds. Science and the storms: the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1306, p. 225–230. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1306/pdf/c1306_ch7_f.pdf.

Plumlee, G.S., Foreman, W.T., Griffin, D.W., Lovelace, J.K., Meeker, G.P., and Demas, C.R., 2007, Characterization of flood sediments from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and potential implications for human health and the environment: in, Farris, G.S., Smith, G.J., Crane, M. P., Demas, C.R., Robbins, L.L., and Lavoie, D.L., eds. Science and the storms: the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1306, p. 245-256. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1306/pdf/c1306_ch7_i.pdf.

Van Metre, P.C., Wilson, J.T., Horowitz, A.J., Skrobialowski, S.C., Foreman, W.T., Fuller, C.C., Burkhardt, M.R., Elrick, K.A., Mahler, B.J., Smith, J.J., and Zaugg, S.D., 2007, Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 206, 159 p. Available electronically only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/206/.

Mendez, G.O., Foreman, W.T., Sidhu, J.S., and Majewski, M.S., 2007, Water- and air-quality monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego, California—Phase one results continued, 1999–2001: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series DS233, 280 p. Available electronically only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/233/ds_233.pdf.

Mast, M.A., Foreman, W.T., and Skaates, S.V., 2007, Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation National Parks in the Western U.S.: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 52, p. 294–305.

Garrison, V.H., Foreman, W.T., Genualdi, S., Griffin, D.W., Kellogg, C.A., Majewski, M.S., Mohammed, A., Ramsubhag, A., Shinn, E.A., Simonich, S.L., and Smith, G.W., 2006, Saharan dust – a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean? Revista de Biologia Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation), v. 54, 9–21.

Van Metre, P.C., Horowitz, A.J., Mahler, B.J., Foreman, W.T., Fuller, C.C., Burkhardt, M.R., Elrick, K.A., Furlong, E.T., Skrobialowski, S., Smith, J.J., Wilson, J.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2006, The impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the chemistry of bottom sediments in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, 6894–6902.

Mast, M.A., Foreman, W.T., and Skaates, S.V., 2006, Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03: U.S Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5119, 54 p. Available electronically only at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2006-5119/.

Majewski, M.S., Zamora, C., Foreman, W.T., and Kratzer, C.R., 2006, Contribution of atmospheric deposition to pesticide loads in surface water runoff: U.S Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1307, available electronically only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1307/.

Noriega, M.C., Wydoski, D.W., and Foreman, W.T., 2004, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4293, 41 p. Available at http://nwql.usgs.gov/Public/pubs/WRIR03-4293/WRIR03-4293.pdf.

Mast, M.A., Campbell, D.H., Ingersoll, G.P., Foreman, W.T., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2003, Atmospheric Deposition of Nutrients, Pesticides, and Mercury in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4241, 15 p. Available at http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri034241/pdf/wrir034241.pdf.

Ulrich, E.M., Wong, C.S., Rounds, S.A., Van Metre, P.C., Wilson, J.T., Garrison, A.W. and Foreman, W.T., 2003, Enantiomer fractions of chlordane components in sediment samples from U.S. Geological Survey sites in lakes, rivers and reservoirs: Organohalogen Compounds, v. 62, 331-334.

Ulrich, E.M., Helsel, D.R., and Foreman, W.T., 2003, Complications with using ratios for environmental data—Comparing enantiomeric ratios (ERs) and enantiomer fractions (EFs): Chemosphere, v. 53, no. 5, p. 531–538.

Garrison, V.H., Shinn, E.A., Foreman, W.T., Griffin, D.W., Holmes, C.W., Kellogg, C.A., Majewski, M.S., Richardson, L.L., Ritchie, K.B., Smith, G.W., 2003, African and Asian dust: From desert soils to coral reefs: BioScience, v. 53, p. 469–480.

Cooter, E.J., Hutzell, W.T., Foreman, W.T., and Majewski, M.S., 2002, A regional atmospheric fate and transport model for atrazine–Part II: Evaluation: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 36, p. 4593–4599.

Sandstrom, M.W., Stroppel, M.E., Foreman, W.T., and Schroeder, M.P., 2001, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of moderate-use pesticides and selected degradates in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring (methods 2002/2011): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4098, 70 p. Available at http://nwql.usgs.gov/Public/pubs/WRIR01-4098.pdf.

Wong, C.S., Garrison, A.W., Smith, P.D., and Foreman, W.T., 2001b, Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 35, p. 2448–2454.

Wong, C.S., Garrison, A.W., and Foreman, W.T., 2001a, Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic bed sediment: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 35, p. 33–39.

Foreman, W.T., Gates, P.M., Foster, G.D., McKenzie, S.W., and Rinella, F.A., 2000, Use of field-applied quality control samples to monitor performance of a Goulden large-sample extractor-GC/MS method for pesticides in water: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 77, p. 39–62.

Coupe, R.H., Manning, M.A., Foreman, W.T., Goolsby, D.A., and Majewski, M.S., 2000, Occurrence of pesticides in rain and air in urban and agricultural areas of Mississippi, April–September 1995: Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, p. 227–239.

Foreman, W.T., Majewski, M.S., Goolsby, D.A., Wiebe, F.W., and Coupe, R.H., 2000, Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II – Air: Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, p. 213–226.

Majewski, M.S., Foreman, W.T., and Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part I – Rain: Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, p. 201–212.

Furlong, Edward T.

Glassmeyer, S.T., Furlong, E.T., Kolpin, D.W , Cahill, J.D., Zaugg, S.D., Werner, S.L., Meyer, M.T., and Kryak, David D., 2005, Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges:  Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination:  Environmental Science & Technology, v. 39, no. 14, p. 5157–5169.

Stackelberg, P.E., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Henderson, A.K., and Reissman, D.B., 2004, Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant:  Science of the Total Environment, v. 329, p. 99–113.

Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Buxton, H.T., 2002, Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000—A national reconnaissance: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 6, p. 1202–1211.

Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., Gates, P.M., Werner, S.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 2000, Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry:  The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, p. 135–146.

Garbarino, John R.

Garbarino, J.R., Bednar, A.J., Rutherford, D.W., Beyer, R.S., and Wershaw, R.L., 2003, The environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting, Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 37, 1509-1514.

Garbarino, J.R., Synder-Conn, E., Leiker, T.J., and Hoffman, G.L., 2002, Contaminants in arctic snow collected over Northwest Alaskan sea ice, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 139, p. 183-214

Garbarino, J.R. , Hayes, H.C., Roth, D.A., Antweiler, R.C., Brinton, T.I., and Taylor, H.E., 1996, Heavy metals in the Mississippi River, in Meade, R.H., ed., Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987-92, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, p. 53-71.

Garbarino, J.R., Taylor, H.E., and Batie, W.C., 1989, Simultaneous determination of major and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry/optical emission spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, v.61, p. 793-796.

Patton, Charles J.

Patton, C.J., and Kryskalla, J., 2003, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water:  U.S. Geological survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4174, 33 p.

Patton, C.J., Fischer, A.E., Campbell, W.H., and Campbell, E.R., 2002, Corn leaf nitrate reductase—A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 4, p. 729–735.

Patton, C.J., and Truitt, E.P., 2000, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of ammonium plus organic nitrogen by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated photometric finish that includes digest cleanup by gas diffusion:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-170, 31 p. Patton, C.J>., and Gilroy, E.J., 1999, U.S. Geological Survey nutrient preservation equipment—Experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation of analytical results:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4118, 73 p.

Sandstrom, Mark W.

Webb, R.M., Sandstrom, M.W., Krutz, L.J., and Shaner, D.L., 2011, Simulation of branched serial first-order decay of atrazine and metabolites in adapted and nonadapted soils: Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, v. 30, no. 9, p. 1973-1981.

Webb, R.M., Wieczorek, M.E., Nolan, B.T., Hancock, T.C., Sandstrom, M.W., Barbash, J.E., Bayless, E.R., Healy, R.W., and Linard, J., 2008, Variations in pesticide leaching related to land use, pesticide properties, and unsaturated zone thickness: Journal of environmental quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1145-1157.

Steele, G.V., Johnson, H.M., Sandstrom, M.W., Capel, P.D., and Barbash, J.E., 2008, Occurrence and fate of pesticides in four contrasting agricultural settings in the United States: Journal of environmental quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1116-1132.

Hancock, T.C., Sandstrom, M.W., Vogel, J.R., Webb, R.M., Bayless, E.R., and Barbash, J.E., 2008, Pesticide fate and transport throughout unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings, USA: Journal of environmental quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1086-1100.

Domagalski, J.L., Ator, S., Coupe, R., McCarthy, K., Lampe, D., Sandstrom, M., and Baker, N., 2008, Comparative study of transport processes of nitrogen, phosphorus, and herbicides to streams in five agricultural basins, USA: Journal of environmental quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1158-1169.

Costanzo, S.D., Watkinson, A.J., Murby, E.J., Kolpin, D.W., and Sandstrom, M.W., 2007, Is there a risk associated with the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) commonly found in aquatic environments?: Science of The Total Environment, v. 384, no. 1-3, p. 214-220.

Planer-Friedrich, B., Lehr, C., Matschullat, J., Merkel, B.J., Nordstrom, D.K., and Sandstrom, M.W., 2006, Speciation of volatile arsenic at geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, no. 10, p. 2480-2491.

Barber, L.B., Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., Sandstrom, M.W., Taylor, H.E., and Furlong, E.T., 2006, Chemical Loading into Surface Water along a Hydrological, Biogeochemical, and Land Use Gradient: A Holistic Watershed Approach: Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 40, no. 2, p. 475-486.

Sandstrom M.W., Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Zaugg, S.D., 2005, Widespread detection of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in U.S. streams:  Comparison with concentrations of pesticides, personal care products, and other organic wastewater compounds:  Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, v. 24, no. 5, p. 1029–1034.

Andraski, B.J., Sandstrom M.W., Micheal, R.L., Radyk, J.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Johnson, M.J. and Mayers, C.J., 2003, Plant and environment interactions:  Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil:  Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, p., 988–995.

Madsen, J.E., Sandstrom, M.W., and Zaugg, S.D., 2003, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—A method supplement for the determination of fipronil and degradates in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-462, 11 p.

Rose, D.L., and Sandstrom, M.W., 2003, Methods of analysis by the U.S Geological Survey National Quality Laboratory—Determination of gasoline oxygenates, selected degradates, and BTEX in water by heated purge and trap/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4079, 31 p.


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